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History ~

"Mother of all the Towns in Cattaraugus County"
An area which included Olean, the 29th largest town in Cattaraugus County, was purchased from the Indians by the Holland Land Company in 1787.  In 1804, Adam Hoops, an agent of the Holland Land Company, purchased the acreage of Cattaraugus County which today encompasses both the Town and City of Olean, originally known as "Hamilton" and " Olean Point".  His settlement (followed by a sawmill (1807), a tavern (1808), grist mill (1809), store (1811), post office (1816, 1st session of court (1817), paper Hamilton Recorder - 1919) was not only the first in Olean, but also the first in Cattaraugus County.

The Town of Olean was formed in 1808, originally embraced all the territory of today's Cattaraugus County.  Olean remained as originally formed until 1812, when it was split to create the Town of Ischua.  Following several splits which created other town within the County, Olean Town and City we know were formed in 1837.  The Town and City of Olean are located in the southeast portion of Cattaraugus County.  The surface of the Town is hilly upland, separated by the valley of the Allegheny River.

Being situated on the Allegheny River, which in 1870 was declared a public highway, Olean was afforded cheap transportation to float lumber and field crops to market.  Sawmills and tanneries sprang up.  With the exhaustion of the timer, attention was given to agricultural activities.

In 1837 the Williams Register stated that the "village (meaning city) of Olean is situated at the point formed by the union of the Olean Creek and the Allegheny River, and contains at present about 70 dwelling-houses, 5 stores, and 3 public houses . . several mills, 1 tannery (Root & Keating), 1 iron foundry."

A road was opened in 1828 which led from Olean to Buffalo by way of Chapell Hill and Ellicottville.  Construction of the Genesee Canal, built to provide transportation from Rochester to Olean, was halted in 1842 by the "Stop Law", for 10 years.  The completion of the Canal in 1856, and the New York & Lake Erie Rail road in 1851m gave a great boost to the commercial and manufacturing enterprises of the Town.  The New York and Lake Erie Railroad bordered the Allegheny River and ran parallel to the  Back Hinsdale Road.  The Buffalo, New York & Philadelphia Railroad opened in 1872, and ran from Buffalo to Emporium (121 miles).  The Olean, Bradford & Warren Railroad, in 1877 opened communication fo rthe oil enterprise between Olean and Bradford.  In the 1980's, a trolley ran from the City of Olean up Mt. Herman to Flat Iron Rock (a geological formation resembling a flat iron).  Olean Street Railway Company, with electric cars, opened with this Union Street line, followed by the opening in 1891 of the State Street line.  Once completed, the line ran from the Erie Depot down Union Street to State Street to the Village of Allegany.

Olean was incorporated as a Village in 1854, followed by the Village being incorporatedas the City of Olean in 1893.  The City was the manufacturing center.  Developments established included Conklin Wagon Works, Olean Tannery (1866), the Tannery (Kelley & Lenham, 1859), Olean Machine Shop and Foundry (1854), Chamberlin Manufacturing (stump puller and ditching plows 1848), Olean Hinsdale Manufactory (Jacob Coss & Sons 1868), Olean Hub Factory (1874), Olean Sash Factory (Gillingham & Bagnall 1866), Planing Mill (Brickell Bros. & Co. 1878), Olean Brewery (1856), Olean Pottery (1852), Olean Flouring & Grist Mill (1851), Dotterweich Brewing Co. (1856), Olean Cart Company (1888), Olean Glass Company (1887), Olean Heading Company, Olean Hardwood Company (1893), Sole Leather Pad Company (1875), Carley Heating Company (1886), and Acme Milling Company (1882).

Other commercial entities and community services that opened in Olean included hardware merchants, general mercantile shops, physicians, oil speculators, lawyers, hotel, carriage makers, grocery, bakers, Old Boat House (1815) Olean House (1819), Butchers and Drover Bank (1848), library, druggist (1858), Stowell Chamberlain & Company (bank 1860), Western Insurance Company (1853), Pioneer Hook & Ladder Company (1856), Eagle Engine Company, No 1 (1868), Exchange National Bank (1870), First National Bank (1871), Keystone Gas Co. (1880), Westbrook Commercial College (1886), and Olean Electric & Light Power Co. (1888).

The discovery of oil properly dates back to when the Seneca Indians gathered it by means of hemlock boughs from springs, upon which the oil appeared.  It was called Seneca oil and was used by the Indians for medicinal purposes.  Up until 1874, oil development in Olean was limited.  A few wells in the State Line area were producing small quantities of what was known as "slush oil" (heavy lubricating purposes).  In 1874, J. H. Dills organized the Olean Petroleum Company, (succeded by standard oil company in 1877), and constructed a pipeline which pumped oil from the Olean wells to New York City.

Numerous oil wells appeared in southern Olean.  In 1877, Wing, Wilbur & Company constructed an oil refinery at Olean, which in 1877 was sold to Acme Oil Company of Pennsylvania.  In 1876, the Allegany Oil Company organized by oil speculators from Allegany, Olean and Bradford, and began testing lands in Olean and Allegany, which proved to be very successful.

Progress in Olean was hampered by fires which occurred in 1866 and 1868, causing considerable loss to the business portion of the City.

Some interesting facts about Olean include: 1) In 1807m a terrible illness plagued the City causing the death of both whites and Indians.  An Indian squaw, absent from the area for some time, upon returning to visit friends who had become ill, made the statement that her friends would die.  Because of "prediction", as her native family called it, when was denounced as a witch and tortured to death by fire.   2) In 1834 a "great tornado" passed through the City demolishing everything in its path.  A path made in the forest, which was visible for years, was known as "fallen timber". 3) Olean Creek was originally known by the Indian name of Ischue or Ischua.  Because of the confusion, the various spellings may have caused, the name was changed to "Olean" (Latin for oil).  4) The Ice Age glaciers ended at the Allegheny River diving the Town of Olean in half.

Population in the City of Olean in 1893 was 8131.  Today, with a 1990 Census population of 16946, the City of Olean (3844 acres) is still the industrial center of the County.  The largest major employer in the County, Dresser Rand, is located in Olean.  Other business/industry/manufacturing entities include Olean Conap, Inc., SubCon Industries, Dexter Electronics Materials, Olean Advanced Products, and Olean Wholesale Grocery Co-op.  Within the bounds of the City, higher educational opportunities are offered at Jamestown Community College, and Olean Business Institute.

LAND USE TRENDS (ACRES)
  1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1995-96 2000** 2010**
Agriculture 2732 884 558 301
Residential 1898 4004 4807 3638
Seasonal Residence 343 354 355 560  
Vacant Land 7908 7450 7479 12193  
Commercial 295 195 363 140  
Entertain/ Recreation 30 115 122 51  
Community Service 0 273 364 96  
Industrial 420 894 240 83  
Public Service 5 112 171 149  
Forested 4580 3202 3093 111  
State/County 11 5 8 7  
Absentee Ownership* 6144 8560 6585 8568  
Town Population 2211 2130 1999 2007 1996 1978
Total Municipal Acreage 18927
* Absentee Ownership: Owns land in the municipality indicated, but has permanent year-round residence in another municipality, town, county, state, country, or island
** Projection: data obtained from Cattaraugus County Real Property Tax Rolls for respective years.  1970 - 1990 population figures based on data obtained from US Census Bureau.  Population projection based on data obtained from US Department of Commerce